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Vacuum coating

Key words�
1. Resistance evaporation plating
2. Electron gun evaporation plating
3. Secondary sputtering
4. Two-stage magnetron sputtering
5. Three-stage magnetron sputtering
6. Intermediate frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering
7. Cathode arc
8. Hollow cathode
9. PECVD plasma chemical vapor deposition
 
1. Resistance evaporation coating: Under vacuum conditions, energized heating or electron gun heating will vaporize the material to be plated and deposit it on the object to be plated, which is called evaporation.
2. Electron gun evaporation coating: Under vacuum conditions, the coating material is heated and evaporated by accelerated electron bombardment to form a film. This is also a type of evaporation plating. The characteristics are: the electron beam emitted by the electron gun has a very high energy density, the heating temperature can reach 3000-6000℃, and it can evaporate insoluble metals or compounds. It is widely used in optical coatings.
3. Two-stage sputtering: Under vacuum conditions, the material object (object) to be plated is charged with high negative voltage, and the chamber body is charged with positive voltage to form a loop. The secondary discharge sputters the object to be plated and adheres to the object to be plated to form secondary sputtering.
4. Two-stage magnetron sputtering: On the basis of two-stage sputtering, a magnetic field is applied to the cathode. The magnetic field and the secondary electric field form an orthogonal electromagnetic field. During the discharge process, electrons roll on the surface of the target in a spiral tube to increase the plasma density and increase the sputtering rate. Therefore, the sputtering rate of magnetron sputtering is much higher than that of secondary sputtering.
5. Three-stage magnetron sputtering: on the basis of magnetron sputtering, another pair of electrodes form three-stage sputtering. Three-stage sputtering has a higher ionization rate than magnetron sputtering, and at the same time, the adhesion to the film and the quality of the coating are improved.
6. Intermediate frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering: based on magnetron sputtering, the DC power supply is changed to an intermediate frequency double pulse power supply. At the same time, a power supply with a pair of magnetron targets forms a loop between the two targets. This method sputters It is called intermediate frequency double-pulse magnetron sputtering coating. Compared with magnetron sputtering, it has many advantages, especially in coating reaction film, oxide film, etc. It is not easy to be poisoned; the target can work stably for a long time. Nowadays, the most popular method of magnetron sputtering is intermediate frequency double pulse magnetron sputtering. Decorative coatings, lamps, tools and the automotive industry have a wide range of applications.
7. Cathodic arc: Cathodic arc (multi-arc) is currently widely used by people. The working principle is that under vacuum conditions, arc discharge is generated through the cathode to evaporate and sputter the coating onto the surface of the workpiece (on the substrate). This coating has a high ionization rate and is called a type of ion plating. Nowadays, multi-arc target heads are commonly used in the market, and their diameter is ∅60-∅100. New models are ∅160, and rectangular and cylindrical cathode arcs are widely used.
8. Hollow cathode: Under vacuum conditions, the hollow cathode plasma electron beam is used as the evaporation source, which is oriented in the crucible, and the coating material is placed in the crucible. The material is evaporated and plated on the object to be plated, and there are more charged particles during the coating process. Therefore, it is mostly used for plating tools, molds, props, etc.
9. Plasma chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
Under vacuum conditions, plasma is generated by an additional electric field, and reactant gases, liquids, etc. are introduced at this time. The process of attaching to the surface of the object to be plated after ionization in a vacuum chamber. At present, PECVD is used more and more widely, and it is used to replace CVD. Because PECVD can achieve a better film without the high temperature of CVD, it is more and more popular among users.